The Chi-Squared Test of Independence – An Example in Both R and SAS


The chi-squared test of independence is one of the most basic and common hypothesis tests in the statistical analysis of categorical data.  Given 2 categorical random variables, X and Y, the chi-squared test of independence determines whether or not there exists a statistical dependence between them.  Formally, it is a hypothesis test with the following null and alternative hypotheses:

H_0: X \perp Y \ \ \ \ \ \text{vs.} \ \ \ \ \ H_a: X \not \perp Y

If you’re not familiar with probabilistic independence and how it manifests in categorical random variables, watch my video on calculating expected counts in contingency tables using joint and marginal probabilities.  For your convenience, here is another video that gives a gentler and more practical understanding of calculating expected counts using marginal proportions and marginal totals.

Today, I will continue from those 2 videos and illustrate how the chi-squared test of independence can be implemented in both R and SAS with the same example.

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Applied Statistics Lesson of the Day – The Coefficient of Variation

In my statistics classes, I learned to use the variance or the standard deviation to measure the variability or dispersion of a data set.  However, consider the following 2 hypothetical cases:

  1. the standard deviation for the incomes of households in Canada is $2,000
  2. the standard deviation for the incomes of the 5 major banks in Canada is $2,000

Even though this measure of dispersion has the same value for both sets of income data, $2,000 is a significant amount for a household, whereas $2,000 is not a lot of money for one of the “Big Five” banks.  Thus, the standard deviation alone does not give a fully accurate sense of the relative variability between the 2 data sets.  One way to overcome this limitation is to take the mean of the data sets into account.

A useful statistic for measuring the variability of a data set while scaling by the mean is the sample coefficient of variation:

\text{Sample Coefficient of Variation (} \bar{c_v} \text{)} \ = \ s \ \div \ \bar{x},

where s is the sample standard deviation and \bar{x} is the sample mean.

Analogously, the coefficient of variation for a random variable is

\text{Coefficient of Variation} \ (c_v) \ = \ \sigma \div \ \mu,

where \sigma is the random variable’s standard deviation and \mu is the random variable’s expected value.

The coefficient of variation is a very useful statistic that I, unfortunately, never learned in my introductory statistics classes.  I hope that all new statistics students get to learn this alternative measure of dispersion.


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