# Mathematical and Applied Statistics Lesson of the Day – Don’t Use the Terms “Independent Variable” and “Dependent Variable” in Regression

In math and science, we learn the equation of a line as

$y = mx + b$,

with $y$ being called the dependent variable and $x$ being called the independent variable.  This terminology holds true for more complicated functions with multiple variables, such as in polynomial regression.

I highly discourage the use of “independent” and “dependent” in the context of statistics and regression, because these terms have other meanings in statistics.  In probability, 2 random variables $X_1$ and $X_2$ are independent if their joint distribution is simply a product of their marginal distributions, and they are dependent if otherwise.  Thus, the usage of “independent variable” for a regression model with 2 predictors becomes problematic if the model assumes that the predictors are random variables; a random effects model is an example with such an assumption.  An obvious question for such models is whether or not the independent variables are independent, which is a rather confusing question with 2 uses of the word “independent”.  A better way to phrase that question is whether or not the predictors are independent.

Thus, in a statistical regression model, I strongly encourage the use of the terms “response variable” or “target variable” (or just “response” and “target”) for $Y$ and the terms “explanatory variables”, “predictor variables”, “predictors”, “covariates”, or “factors” for $x_1, x_2, .., x_p$.

(I have encountered some statisticians who prefer to reserve “covariate” for continuous predictors and “factor” for categorical predictors.)