Physical Chemistry Lesson of the Day – Intensive vs. Extensive Properties

An extensive property is a property that depends on the size of the system.  Examples include

An intensive property is a property that does not depend on the size of the system.  Examples include

As you can see, some intensive properties can be derived from extensive properties by dividing an extensive property by the mass, volume, or number of moles of the system.

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Physical Chemistry Lesson of the Day – The First Law of Thermodynamics

The change in internal energy of a system is defined to be the internal energy of a system in its final state subtracted by the internal energy of the system in its initial state.

\Delta U = U_{final} - U_{initial}.

However, since we cannot measure the internal energy of a system directly at any point in time, how can we calculate the change in internal energy?

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that any change in the internal energy of a system is equal to the heat absorbed the system plus any work done on the system.  Mathematically,

\Delta U = q + w.

Recall that I am using the sign convention in chemistry.

The value of q and w can be positive or negative.

  • A negative q denotes heat released by the system.
  • A negative w denotes work done by the system.