Applied Statistics Lesson and Humour of the Day – Type I Error (False Positive) and Type 2 Error (False Negative)

In hypothesis testing,

• a Type 1 error is the rejection of the null hypothesis when it is actually true
• a Type 2 error is the acceptance of the null hypothesis when it is actually false.  (Some statisticians prefer to say “failure to reject” rather than “accept” the null hypothesis for Type 2 errors.)

A Type 1 error is also known as a false positive, and a Type 2 error is also known as a false negative.  This nomenclature comes from the conventional connotation of

• the null hypothesis as the “negative” or the “boring” result
• the alternative hypothesis as the “positive” or “exciting” result.

A great way to illustrate the meaning and the intuition of Type 1 errors and Type 2 errors is the following cartoon.

Source of Image: Effect Size FAQs by Paul Ellis

In this case, the null hypothesis (or the “boring” result) is “You’re not pregnant”, and the alternative hypothesis (or the “exciting” result) is “You’re pregnant!”.

This is the most effective way to explain Type 1 error and Type 2 error that I have encountered!