## Eric’s Enlightenment for Friday, April 24, 2015

1. Anna Katherine Barnett-Hart wrote an empirical study of how collateralized debt obligations contributed to \$542 billion in losses suffered by financial institutions during the sub-prime mortgage crisis.  This was her honours thesis for her Bachelor of Arts degree at Harvard.  Here is her interview about her work with Dylan Ratigan.
2. Instead of money, Toyota offered its engineers to help The Food Bank for New York City to improve its operations.  Thanks to their guidance, the wait time for dinner was cut from 90 minutes to 18 minutes.
3. Unusual, simple, yet effective: Dispensing with loyalty cards or rewards programs, Pret A Manger spontaneously offers free food to reward loyal customers.
4. A fast and simple macro for getting the sample size of a data set in SAS.  (No need to scroll through PROC CONTENTS in case you have many variables.)
5. Jon Chui provides some useful pictorial guides for interpreting infrared spectra and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

## Applied Statistics Lesson of the Day – Fractional Factorial Design and the Sparsity-of-Effects Principle

Consider again an experiment that seeks to determine the causal relationships between $G$ factors and the response, where $G > 1$.  Ideally, the sample size is large enough for a full factorial design to be used.  However, if the sample size is small and the number of possible treatments is large, then a fractional factorial design can be used instead.  Such a design assigns the experimental units to a select fraction of the treatments; these treatments are chosen carefully to investigate the most significant causal relationships, while leaving aside the insignificant ones.

When, then, are the significant causal relationships?  According to the sparsity-of-effects principle, it is unlikely that complex, higher-order effects exist, and that the most important effects are the lower-order effects.  Thus, assign the experimental units so that main (1st-order) effects and the 2nd-order interaction effects can be investigated.  This may neglect the discovery of a few significant higher-order effects, but that is the compromise that a fractional factorial design makes when the sample size available is low and the number of possible treatments is high.

## Mathematical and Applied Statistics Lesson of the Day – The Central Limit Theorem Applies to the Sample Mean

Having taught and tutored introductory statistics numerous times, I often hear students misinterpret the Central Limit Theorem by saying that, as the sample size gets bigger, the distribution of the data approaches a normal distribution.  This is not true.  If your data come from a non-normal distribution, their distribution stays the same regardless of the sample size.

Remember: The Central Limit Theorem says that, if $X_1, X_2, ..., X_n$ is an independent and identically distributed sample of random variables, then the distribution of their sample mean is approximately normal, and this approximation gets better as the sample size gets bigger.

## Statistics and Chemistry Lesson of the Day – Illustrating Basic Concepts in Experimental Design with the Synthesis of Ammonia

To summarize what we have learned about experimental design in the past few Applied Statistics Lessons of the Day, let’s use an example from physical chemistry to illustrate these basic principles.

Ammonia (NH3) is widely used as a fertilizer in industry.  It is commonly synthesized by the Haber process, which involves a reaction between hydrogen gas and nitrogen gas.

N2 + 3 H2 → 2 NH3   (ΔH = −92.4 kJ·mol−1)

Recall that ΔH is the change in enthalpy.  Under constant pressure (which is the case for most chemical reactions), ΔH is the heat absorbed or released by the system.

## Applied Statistics Lesson of the Day: Sample Size and Replication in Experimental Design

The goal of an experiment is to determine

1. whether or not there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the factor and the response
2. the strength of the causal relationship, should such a relationship exist.

To answer these questions, the response variable is measured in both the control group and the experimental group.  If there is a difference between the 2 responses, then there is evidence to suggest that the causal relationship exists, and the difference can be measured and quantified.

However, in most* experiments, there is random variation in the response.  Random variation exists in the natural sciences, and there is even more of it in the social sciences.  Thus, an observed difference between the control and experimental groups could be mistakenly attributed to a cause-and-effect relationship when the source of the difference is really just random variation.  In short, the difference may simply be due to the noise rather than the signal.

To detect an actual difference beyond random variation (i.e. to obtain a higher signal-to-noise ratio), it is important to use replication to obtain a sufficiently large sample size in the experiment.  Replication is the repeated application of the treatments to multiple independently assigned experimental units.  (Recall that randomization is an important part of controlling for confounding variables in an experiment.  Randomization ensures that the experimental units are independently assigned to the different treatments.)  The number of independently assigned experimental units that receive the same treatment is the sample size.

*Deterministic computer experiments are unlike most experiments; they do not have random variation in the responses.