## Physical Chemistry Lesson of the Day – Standard Heats of Formation

The standard heat of formation, ΔHfº, of a chemical is the amount of heat absorbed or released from the formation of 1 mole of that chemical at 25 degrees Celsius and 1 bar from its elements in their standard states.  An element is in its standard state if it is in its most stable form and physical state (solid, liquid or gas) at 25 degrees Celsius and 1 bar.

For example, the standard heat of formation for carbon dioxide involves oxygen and carbon as the reactants.  Oxygen is most stable as O2 gas molecules, whereas carbon is most stable as solid graphite.  (Graphite is more stable than diamond under standard conditions.)

To phrase the definition in another way, the standard heat of formation is a special type of standard heat of reaction; the reaction is the formation of 1 mole of a chemical from its elements in their standard states under standard conditions.  The standard heat of formation is also called the standard enthalpy of formation (even though it really is a change in enthalpy).

By definition, the formation of an element from itself would yield no change in enthalpy, so the standard heat of reaction for all elements is zero.

## Physical Chemistry Lesson of the Day – The Perpetual Motion Machine

A thermochemical equation is a chemical equation that also shows the standard heat of reaction.  Recall that the value given by ΔHº is only true when the coefficients of the reactants and the products represent the number of moles of the corresponding substances.

The law of conservation of energy ensures that the standard heat of reaction for the reverse reaction of a thermochemical equation is just the forward reaction’s ΔHº multiplied by -1.  Let’s consider a thought experiment to show why this must be the case.

Imagine if a forward reaction is exothermic and has a ΔHº = -150 kJ, and its endothermic reverse reaction has a ΔHº = 100 kJ.  Then, by carrying out the exothermic forward reaction, 150 kJ is released from the reaction.  Out of that released heat, 100 kJ can be used to fuel the reverse reaction, and 50 kJ can be saved as a “profit” for doing something else, such as moving a machine.  This can be done perpetually, and energy can be created forever – of course, this has never been observed to happen, and the law of conservation of energy prevents such a perpetual motion machine from being made.  Thus, the standard heats of reaction for the forward and reverse reactions of the same thermochemical equation have the same magnitudes but opposite signs.

Regardless of how hard the reverse reaction may be to carry out, its ΔHº can still be written.

## Physical Chemistry Lesson of the Day – Standard Heats of Reaction

The change in enthalpy of a chemical reaction indicates how much heat is absorbed or released by the system.  This is valuable information in chemistry, because the exchange in heat affects the reaction conditions and the surroundings, and that needs to be managed and taken into account – in theory, in the laboratory, in industry or in nature in general.

Chemists often want to compare the changes in enthalpy between different reactions.  Since changes in enthalpy depend on both temperature and pressure, we need to control for these 2 confounding variables by using a reference set of temperature and pressure.  This set of conditions is called the standard conditions, and it sets the standard temperature at 298 degrees Kelvin and the standard pressure at 1 bar.  (IUPAC changed the definition of standard pressure from 1 atmosphere to 1 bar in 1982.  The actual difference in pressure between these 2 definitions is very small.)

The standard enthalpy of reaction (or standard heat of reaction) is the change in enthalpy of a chemical reaction under standard conditions; the actual number of moles are specified by the coefficients of the balanced chemical equation.  (Since enthalpy is an extensive property, the same reaction under standard conditions could have different changes in enthalpy with different amounts of the reactants and products.  Thus, the number of moles of the reaction must be standardized somehow when defining the standard enthalpy of reaction.)  The standard enthalpy of reaction has the symbol ΔHº; the º symbol indicates the standard conditions.