Applied Statistics Lesson of the Day – Additive Models vs. Interaction Models in 2-Factor Experimental Designs
March 7, 2014 Leave a comment
In a recent “Machine Learning Lesson of the Day“, I discussed the difference between a supervised learning model in machine learning and a regression model in statistics. In that lesson, I mentioned that a statistical regression model usually consists of a systematic component and a random component. Today’s lesson strictly concerns the systematic component.
An additive model is a statistical regression model in which the systematic component is the arithmetic sum of the individual effects of the predictors. Consider the simple case of an experiment with 2 factors. If is the response and and are the 2 predictors, then an additive linear model for the relationship between the response and the predictors is
In other words, the effect of on does not depend on the value of , and the effect of on does not depend on the value of .
In contrast, an interaction model is a statistical regression model in which the systematic component is not the arithmetic sum of the individual effects of the predictors. In other words, the effect of on depends on the value of , or the effect of on depends on the value of . Thus, such a regression model would have 3 effects on the response:
- the interaction effect of and
A full factorial design with 2 factors uses the 2-factor ANOVA model, which is an example of an interaction model. It assumes a linear relationship between the response and the above 3 effects.
Note that additive models and interaction models are not confined to experimental design; I have merely used experimental design to provide examples for these 2 types of models.