Exploratory Data Analysis: 2 Ways of Plotting Empirical Cumulative Distribution Functions in R

Introduction

Continuing my recent series on exploratory data analysis (EDA), and following up on the last post on the conceptual foundations of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDFs), this post shows how to plot them in R.  (Previous posts in this series on EDA include descriptive statistics, box plots, kernel density estimation, and violin plots.)

I will plot empirical CDFs in 2 ways:

  1. using the built-in ecdf() and plot() functions in R
  2. calculating and plotting the cumulative probabilities against the ordered data

Continuing from the previous posts in this series on EDA, I will use the “Ozone” data from the built-in “airquality” data set in R.  Recall that this data set has missing values, and, just as before, this problem needs to be addressed when constructing plots of the empirical CDFs.

Recall the plot of the empirical CDF of random standard normal numbers in my earlier post on the conceptual foundations of empirical CDFs.  That plot will be compared to the plots of the empirical CDFs of the ozone data to check if they came from a normal distribution.

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Exploratory Data Analysis: Conceptual Foundations of Empirical Cumulative Distribution Functions

Introduction

Continuing my recent series on exploratory data analysis (EDA), this post focuses on the conceptual foundations of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDFs); in a separate post, I will show how to plot them in R.  (Previous posts in this series include descriptive statistics, box plots, kernel density estimation, and violin plots.)

To give you a sense of what an empirical CDF looks like, here is an example created from 100 randomly generated numbers from the standard normal distribution.  The ecdf() function in R was used to generate this plot; the entire code is provided at the end of this post, but read my next post for more detail on how to generate plots of empirical CDFs in R.

ecdf standard normal

Read to rest of this post to learn what an empirical CDF is and how to produce the above plot!

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